Tsering Dhondup was born in 1960 after his parents escaped into exile after the Chinese forceful occupation of Tibet in 1959. He attended school at the Tibetan Homes Foundation and Central School for Tibetans, Mussoorie in 1981. He obtained Bachelor of Commerce degree at Panjab University, Chandigarh, in 1983. During this period, he was the President of the Tibetan Freedom Movement in Chandigarh.
He joined and worked as senior clerk in the office of the Auditor General, Central Tibetan Administration in December 1984. He was promoted to deputy secretary in 1991, and in 1993, he was promoted to joint secretary. He obtained a Master’s degree in Commerce at Himachal Pradesh University in 1993.
In fall 1993 with a Fulbright Scholarship, he studied Business Management for one year at the University of Montana, United States.
He came back in India in October 1994, where he continued to work for the Central Tibetan Administration and served as joint secretary in the office of Auditor General from June 1994.
In April 1998, he was promoted to additional secretary of the Office of Auditor General. From March 2000, on the same post, he served as secretary in the Department of Education and was promoted to secretary in July 2000.
From April 2002, he served as secretary in the Department of Home. He was Secretary of the Department of Education in 2000, and Department of Home in 2002, until October 2007 when his nomination as a Minister was approved by the 14th Tibetan Parliament in Exile.
From 2007 to 2011, he was kalon (Minister) of Finance in the 13th Kashag, under Samdhong Rinpoche tenure as the Kalon Tripa.
He was nominated and appointed again as Kalon of Finance in the 14th Kashag, when Kalon Tripa Lobsang Sangay was elected in 2011.